Periodontology is a branch of dental medicine that studies the supporting tooth tissues (periodontium) and diseases that affect them. Periodontal diseases affect alveolar bone, cementum, periodontal ligament that connects the previous two parts, or gingiva (gums).
The most common diseases of the supporting teeth apparatus are gingivitis (inflammation of the gums) and periodontitis (that is a more severe form of gingivitis). Many factors contribute to the formation of these diseases and the most important are poor oral hygiene, protruding filings, crowns and bridges. Besides these, plaque, calculus, tightly compact teeth and genetic factors also cause gingivitis and periodontitis.
Initial therapy in periodontology is removal of dental scale and other unwanted deposits, polishing tooth neck and the removal of bad fillings, crowns and etc. In order to make it less painful for the patient, laser is used. If the initial treatment is not enough to cure the disease, more complex methods are used, such as guided bone and tissue regeneration.